Monday, March 16, 2020

All About the Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall

All About the Rise and Fall of the Berlin Wall Erected in the dead of night on August 13, 1961, the Berlin Wall (known as Berliner Mauer in German) was a physical division between West Berlin and East Germany. Its purpose was to keep disaffected East Germans from fleeing to the West. When the Berlin Wall fell on November 9, 1989, its destruction was nearly as instantaneous as its creation. For 28 years, the Berlin Wall had been a symbol of the Cold War and the Iron Curtain between Soviet-led Communism and the democracies of the West. When it fell, it was celebrated around the world. A Divided Germany and Berlin At the end of World War II, the Allied powers divided conquered Germany into four zones. As agreed at the  Potsdam Conference, each was occupied by either the United States, Great Britain, France, or the Soviet Union. The same was done in Germanys capital city, Berlin.   The relationship between the Soviet Union and the other three Allied powers quickly disintegrated. As a result, the cooperative atmosphere of the occupation of Germany turned competitive and aggressive. One of the best-known incidents was the Berlin Blockade in June of 1948  during which the Soviet Union stopped all supplies from reaching West Berlin. Although an eventual reunification of Germany had been intended, the new relationship between the Allied powers turned Germany into West versus East and democracy versus Communism. In 1949, this new organization of Germany became official when the three zones occupied by the United States, Great Britain, and France combined to form West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany, or FRG). The zone occupied by the Soviet Union quickly followed by forming East Germany (the German Democratic Republic, or GDR). This same division into West and East occurred in Berlin.  Since the city of Berlin had been situated entirely within the Soviet Zone of Occupation, West Berlin became an island of democracy within Communist East Germany. The Economic Differences Within a short period of time after the war, living conditions in West Germany and East Germany became distinctly different. With the help and support of its occupying powers, West Germany set up a capitalist society. The economy experienced such a rapid growth that it became known as the economic miracle. With hard work, individuals living in West Germany were able to live well, buy gadgets and appliances, and travel as they wished. Nearly the opposite was true in East Germany. The Soviet Union had viewed their zone as a spoil of war. They had pilfered factory equipment and other valuable assets from their zone and shipped them back to the Soviet Union. When East Germany became its own country in 1949, it was under the direct influence of the Soviet Union and a Communist society was established. The economy of East Germany dragged and individual freedoms were severely restricted. Mass EmigrationFrom the East Outside of Berlin, East Germany had been fortified in 1952. By the late 1950s, many people living in East Germany wanted out. No longer able to stand the repressive living conditions, they would head to West Berlin. Although some of them would be stopped on their way, hundreds of thousands made it across the border. Once across, these refugees were housed in warehouses and then flown to West Germany. Many of those who escaped were young, trained professionals. By the early 1960s, East Germany was rapidly losing both its labor force and its population. Between 1949 and 1961, its estimated that nearly 2.7 million people fled East Germany. The government was desperate to stop this mass exodus. The obvious leak was the easy access East Germans had to West Berlin. With the support of the Soviet Union, there had been several attempts to simply take over West Berlin. Although the Soviet Union even threatened the United States with the use of nuclear weapons over this issue, the United States and other Western countries were committed to defending West Berlin. Desperate to keep its citizens, East Germany knew that something needed to be done. Famously, two months before the Berlin Wall appeared, Walter Ulbricht, Head of the State Council of the GDR (1960–1973) said, Niemand hat die Absicht, eine Mauer zu errichten. These iconic words mean, No one intended to build a wall. After this statement, the exodus of East Germans only increased. Over those next two months of 1961, nearly 20,000 people fled to the West. The Berlin Wall Goes Up Rumors had spread that something might happen to tighten the border of East and West Berlin. No one was expecting the speed nor the absoluteness of the Berlin Wall. Just past midnight on the night of August 12-13, 1961, trucks with soldiers and construction workers rumbled through East Berlin. While most Berliners were sleeping, these crews began tearing up streets that entered into West Berlin. They dug holes to put up concrete posts and strung barbed wire all across the border between East and West Berlin. Telephone wires between East and West Berlin were also cut and railroad lines were blocked. Soldiers closing off East Berlin with barbed wire fences. Keystone / Getty Images Berliners were shocked when they woke up that morning. What had once been a very fluid border was now rigid. No longer could East Berliners cross the border for operas, plays, soccer games, or any other activity. No longer could the approximately 60,000 commuters head to West Berlin for well-paying jobs. No longer could families, friends, and lovers cross the border to meet their loved ones.   Whichever side of the border one went to sleep on during the night of August 12, they were stuck on that side for decades. The Size and Scope of the Berlin Wall The total length of the Berlin Wall was 91 miles (155 kilometers). It can not only through the center of Berlin, but also wrapped around West Berlin, entirely cutting it off from the rest of East Germany. The wall itself went through four major transformations during its 28-year history. It started out as a barbed-wire fence with concrete posts. Just days later, on August 15, it was quickly replaced with a sturdier, more permanent structure. This one was made out of concrete blocks and topped with barbed wire. The first two versions of the wall were replaced by the third version in 1965. This consisted of a concrete wall supported by steel girders. The fourth version of the Berlin Wall, constructed from 1975 to 1980, was the most complicated and thorough. It consisted of concrete slabs reaching nearly 12-feet high (3.6 meters) and 4-feet wide (1.2 meters). It also had a smooth pipe running across the top to hinder people from scaling it. Bettmann Archive / Getty Images By the time the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, there was a 300-foot No Mans Land and  an additional inner wall. Soldiers patrolled with dogs and a raked ground showed footprints. The East Germans also installed anti-vehicle trenches, electric fences, massive light systems, 302 watchtowers, 20 bunkers, and even minefields. Over the years, propaganda from the East German government would say that the people of East Germany welcomed the Wall. In reality, the oppression they suffered and the potential consequences they faced kept many from speaking out to the contrary. The Checkpoints of the Wall Although most of the border between East and West consisted of layers of preventative measures, there were little more than a handful of official openings along the Berlin Wall. These checkpoints were for the infrequent use of officials and others with special permission to cross the border. Checkpoint Charlie. Express / Getty Images The most famous of these was Checkpoint Charlie, located on the border between East and West Berlin at Friedrichstrasse. Checkpoint Charlie was the main access point for Allied personnel and Westerners to cross the border. Soon after the Berlin Wall was built, Checkpoint Charlie became an icon of the Cold War. It has frequently been featured in movies and books set during this time period. Escape Attempts and the Death Line The Berlin Wall did prevent the majority of East Germans from emigrating to the West, but it did not deter everyone. During the history of the Berlin Wall, it is estimated that about 5,000 people made it safely across. Soldiers investigating a tunnel dug beneath the Berlin wall. Michael Ochs Archives / Getty Images Some early successful attempts were simple, like throwing a rope over the Berlin Wall and climbing up. Others were brash, like ramming a truck or bus into the Berlin Wall and making a run for it. Still, others were suicidal as some people jumped from the upper-story windows of apartment buildings that bordered the Berlin Wall.   Soldiers patrolling the Death Strip. KEENPRESS / Getty Images In September 1961, the windows of these buildings were boarded up and the sewers connecting East and West were shut off. Other buildings were torn down to clear space for what would become known as the Todeslinie, the Death Line or Death Strip. This open area allowed a direct line of fire so East German soldiers could carry out  Shiessbefehl, a 1960 order that they were to shoot anyone trying escape. Twenty-nine people were killed within the first year. As the Berlin Wall became stronger and larger, the escape attempts became more elaborately planned. Some people dug tunnels from the basements of buildings in East Berlin, under the Berlin Wall, and into West Berlin. Another group saved scraps of cloth and built a hot air balloon and flew over the Wall. Unfortunately, not all escape attempts were successful. Since the East German guards were allowed to shoot anyone nearing the eastern side without warning, there was always a chance of death in any and all escape plots. It is estimated that somewhere between 192 and 239 people died at the Berlin Wall. The 50th Victim of the Berlin Wall One of the most infamous cases of a failed attempt occurred on August 17, 1962. In the early afternoon, two 18-year-old men ran toward the Wall with the intention of scaling it. The first of the young men to reach it was successful. The second one, Peter Fechter, was not. West Berliners Protesting at Berlin Wall with pictures of Peter Fechters body. Corbis / Getty Images As he was about to scale the Wall, a border guard opened fire. Fechter continued to climb but ran out of energy just as he reached the top. He then tumbled back onto the East German side. To the shock of the world, Fechter was just left there. The East German guards did not shoot him again nor did they go to his aid. Fechter shouted in agony for nearly an hour. Once he had bled to death, East German guards carried off his body. He became the 50th person to die at the Berlin Wall and a permanent symbol of the struggle for freedom. Communism Is Dismantled The fall of the Berlin Wall happened nearly as suddenly as its rise. There had been signs that the Communist bloc was weakening, but the East German Communist leaders insisted that East Germany just needed a moderate change rather than a drastic revolution. East German citizens did not agree. Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev (1985–1991) was attempting to save his country and decided to break off from many of its satellites. As Communism began to falter in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia in 1988 and 1989, new exodus points were opened to East Germans who wanted to flee to the West.   In East Germany, protests against the government were countered by threats of violence from its leader, Erich Honecker. In October 1989, Honecker was forced to resign after losing support from Gorbachev. He was replaced by Egon Krenz who decided that violence was not going to solve the countrys problems. Krenz also loosened travel restrictions from East Germany. The Fall of the Berlin Wall Suddenly, on the evening of November 9, 1989, East German government official Gà ¼nter Schabowski blundered by stating in an announcement, Permanent relocations can be done through all border checkpoints between the GDR [East Germany] into the FRG [West Germany] or West Berlin. People were in shock. Were the borders really open? East Germans tentatively approached the border and indeed found that the border guards were letting people cross. Corbis  / Getty Images Very quickly, the Berlin Wall was inundated with people from both sides. Some began chipping at the Berlin Wall with hammers and chisels. There was an impromptu and massive celebration along the Berlin Wall, with people hugging, kissing, singing, cheering, and crying. Corbis  / Getty Images The Berlin Wall was eventually chipped away into smaller pieces (some the size of a coin and others in big slabs). The pieces have become collectibles and are stored in both homes and museums. There is also now a Berlin Wall Memorial at the site on Bernauer Strasse. Luis Davilla / Getty Images After the Berlin Wall came down, East and West Germany reunified into a single German state on October 3, 1990.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Discussion Topics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 8

Discussion Topics - Essay Example The America became restless to defend this position to appoint involvement in war as seen in the Persian Gulf War and the craving to influence the Middle East and its oil supplies (Patterson, 2005). Terrorism: It diverted attention to crucial domestic issues e.g. education, economy and Social Security to war against terrorists (after the president decreed War on Terror). The terrorism claimed many lives (approximately 3,000 people, more than that of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 died), it led to war on Afghanistan and later Iraq, and economic recession lastly followed; different industries, employment opportunities and oil prices were affected. These led to a vast financial crisis the Americans have had since the Great Depression. Financial fall down: Financial fall down is a breed of many problems in a country. It is said that since terrorists attack to date, US is in debt for $14.3 trillion dollars. In addition to dept, unemployment rate, poor health care, slow development rate and down fall of the GDP may be experienced, even the strength of US dollar against other currencies may lost. All these may weaken the US

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

New advancements in police technnologies Research Paper

New advancements in police technnologies - Research Paper Example Administrators must be well skilled in getting technology over a diversity of financial sources. There are several new advancements of police technologies that are currently used. These new technologies as force manifold that progress competence, usefulness as well as officer safety in a various ways. This paper outlines some of these advancements. The first one is the Crime Acts. Currently, there is an influx of a total of flashlights with every an altered specific wavelength intended to perceive hair, fibers, as well as body liquids at crime acts. These lights permit a crime act to be handled quicker and extra methodically than previously. Places formerly inaccessible for influential fluorescence inspection are now available. The compactness of the current crime act inspection light sources brands the furthest of countryside locations. -the second technological advancement is the Car Camera Systems, which has an advanced an appreciated tool to check and ensure a high degree of offi cer expertise (Rostker, 2008). The aptitude to record video film of events involving the public from a patrol car perspective has proven invaluable in such matters as traffic stops, criminal investigations and arrests, internal affairs, and training. These systems are constantly improving and becoming more cost effective. From the time the first in-car cameras were installed to document roadside impaired driving sobriety tests, the cameras have captured both intended and unintended video footage that has established their value (Rostker, 2008). Various video recordings have resulted in convictions; many provide an expedited means to resolve citizen complaints, exonerate officers from accusations, and serve as police training videos. Occasionally, a video ends up on the evening news, as a humorous excerpt on other television programs. Similarly, there is the Photo Implementation Systems, which are automatically generated in red light color defilements and as a result importantly reco ver security for the proceeding public. Presently there are a number of trustworthy merchants of photo implementation systems accessible to societies. In addition, Searching for Individuals are current imaging strategies usually organized for the exploration and liberation assignments where arenas, as well as other topography can be perused very quickly. Specific rate is the exploration of compact brush or even wooded parts where conservative explorations can be problematic. Correspondingly, imagers can be casted off to exploration to dark constructions and new parts for defendants who are walloping and endeavoring to escape anxiety. This device cans as well elite up a heat autograph on the pulverized where a suspect was formerly walloping. Another technological advancement is the Evidence and Deterrence whereby crime acts inquiries are as well assisted by the systems in skimming for physical indication (Raschke, 2009). Also imagers can perceive bothered surfaces for crypts or even other parts that must been excavated up in an effort to hide the bodies, indications, as well as objects. This device can as well scam thoroughfares for exhaust tracks and other scripts which are not noticeable to the bare eye. Preemptive imager investigation allows officers to scam communal parks, communal streets, backstreets and bays lots, communal constructions, conveyance passageways, as well as other

Friday, January 31, 2020

Rise and fall of World Empires Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Rise and fall of World Empires - Term Paper Example Just like numerous other empires of its time, the Roman Empire relied heavily on agriculture to boost its economy. The empire owned large tracts of agricultural land that not only provided food for the urban population but which also offered employment to a large section of individuals in the empire. The surplus food gotten from the agricultural sector was used for trade with other nations in the region. In order to facilitate trade, an extensive road network was built in the region and this made the region to have one of the best transport infrastructures in the region. This infrastructure enabled commerce in the region to flourish something that led into the region’s economic stability (Maddison 12).  Ã‚   The Roman Empire trade and economic prosperity enhanced during the Pax Romana era, the empires well laid road and sea network made it ideal for merchants to go to every region belonging to the Roman Empire. However, this network was not stable since after the Pax Romana ended, merchants were no longer assured of their safety of their goods while in transit. The collapse of the Pax Romana and the expansion that they had engineered also brought to an end the loss of the loot that came out of the numerous conquests engineered by the emperor, and this in many ways accelerated the collapse of the emperor (Maddison 13).  Ã‚   In order to fund their operations, the different emperors would occasionally alter laws and come up with varied currencies something that brought chaos in the empire.  Ã‚  

Thursday, January 23, 2020

A Midsummer Night?s Dream :: essays research papers

A Midsummer Night’s Dream   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream is a comedy that is full of mischief. Instead of having a main plot, it seems to be about random thoughts and emotions (much the same as dreams are). In fact, I have to wonder how much of the whole play is really supposed to be a dream – as Puck even suggests toward the end of the play. There is no real protagonist to latch onto in this play, probably because there are three main groups of characters, but many people will find Puck to be the most interesting character. The whole play is based around Puck's antics, and he seems to be the play's main fool. In addition, it is he who sends everyone on hard (but funny) adventures. Puck is a fool in the true sense of the word during the time of this play - someone that entertains for his master. It was Puck’s job in this play to entertain the fairy king Oberon. I picture Puck as wearing a funny hat and pointed toe shoes. Another fool in this play would be Nick Bottom, but he is a fool in the present-day sense of the word. Bottom is not the type of fool who entertains his master. He is a fool because he allows his own idiocy and ego to stop him from accomplishing his goals, and he is totally unaware of how ridiculous he looks. Nick Bottom always thinks he is the best at everything. Even when Puck gave Bottom the head of a donkey, it didn’t change his inflated opinion of himself. This play begins when the duke of Athens (Theseus) is preparing for his marriage to the queen of the Amazons (Hippolyta). He is planning a four-day celebration for the occasion. As time goes on, there are so many twists and turns in the play that it is sometimes hard to keep things sorted out. In one part of the play, Puck is sent to find a magical flower that is thought to contain a love potion. The juice of this flower can be spread over a sleeping person’s eyelids to make that person fall in love with the first thing he or she sees when waking up. What happens with the love potion is very funny, because Puck manages to have it affect the wrong two people and then nothing turns out as it should.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Investigation into Roles and Contracts of the Music Industry Essay

Scenario Your local paper has assigned you with a task to present them with information about the roles and contracts in the Music industry. Carry out an investigation that describes/explains/comments critically on the roles and contracts of one area of the Music Industry and deliver your results as a presentation to the class. Task 1: Using Publisher/ Word, you need to research, write and describe the contracts associated with an area of the Music Industry (Live Performance: e.g. artist’s responsibilities with a label, or a manager/agency’s responsibilities with an artist/performer) (P3) In order to gain a MERIT grade, in addition to the requirements of the PASS criteria, you will need to describe and explain the above by providing examples. (P1, P2, M1, M2) In order to gain a DISTINCTION grade, in addition to the PASS and MERIT criteria, you will need to describe, explain and comment critically the above by giving examples, drawing conclusions from experience and/or research (P1, P2, M1, M2, D1, D2) 2 Know the professional roles within a chosen area of the music industry Live performance: eg performer/artist, DJ, agent, promoter, venues and stage management, crew/ technicians, security, merchandise Record companies: eg A&R, promotion, distribution and retail, merchandising Music publishing companies: eg publishing, copyright, sales, composer and artist development  Artist management: eg artists, songwriter/composer, manager Assessment Method: Class presentation. To include referencing

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Home by Toni Morrison - 1100 Words

1. The title of the book is called Home written by Toni Morrison. 2. Home is about a Korean War veteran named Frank Money who needs to save his sister from dying. The story starts with Frank describing a scene from his childhood with his sister. They were in a field with horses he describes the horses being beautiful and brutal, but on the other side some men were burying a dead African American in a hole. When Frank becomes an adult he is soon committed to a mental hospital after his time in the war. Frank soon gets a letter stating that his sister was in danger and could die if he did not hurry to save her. Then he remembers his family being evicted and not being able to take any possessions. Frank then escapes the bastion of the†¦show more content†¦One of the first minor characters that reader encounters is Reverend John Locke. He helps ply a major role by offering Frank supplies and shelter for a while before he left to continue his search. Some other important minor characters include the group of Good Samaritans that also he lp Frank on his travels by offering money and supplies. These minor characters help prelude to the theme of good versus evil because while Frank was in the army he was not too proud of what he did and seeing these people help him reminds him of what he did. 7. The setting help establish a theme by being part of the theme itself or being reference to it. In Home the plains with the crops were a beautiful place with majestic creatures running around but is turned brutal when the horses in the field start to fight each other. Also the place was nice and calm then Frank and his sister see some men drop a dead man in a hole and didn’t even care about him and covered in in dirt. Different settings can help display many different themes, some more than just one theme. 8. The primary theme in Home is that of good versus evil within man. Also how man react to different situations that involve good and evil choices. There are many different examples within the text that talk about the good and evil choices of man. The time period that this novel takes place is very racist because African Americans haven’t learn the civil rights that they have today. Many examples of racist and evil actsShow MoreRelatedHome by: Toni Morrison Essay1150 Words   |  5 Pageseach other becomes more evident. Frank and Cee Money, the protagonists of Toni Morrison’s Home, exemplify this powerful need, a need that at times flirts with greed. The reason Frank feels so responsible for Cee is due to the fact while growing up they had neglectful parents as well as an abusive grandmother, his failed relationship with Lily, and lastly him facing his inner turmoil due to his actions in Korea. Toni Morrison states numerous times in the text, how Frank would do anyth ing for Cee. FrankRead MoreMorrisons View on Gender in the Black Community Between 1919 and 19651362 Words   |  6 PagesIn the novel â€Å"Sula†, Toni Morrison presents a very different view on gender in the black community between 1919 and 1965. Written in 1973 after the Civil Rights movement and during the feminist movement, Morison breaks down the traditional gender barriers from as early as 1919, proving that black females were â€Å"women† much sooner than their white â€Å"lady† counterparts. Morrison depicts matriarchal homes where the women are the dominant figures who even go as far as to emasculate their male oppositesRead MoreUse of Violence in Beloved by Toni Morrison Essay668 Words   |  3 PagesAs much as society does not want to admit, violence serves as a form of entertainment. In media today, violence typically has no meaning. Literature, movies, and music, saturated with violence, enter the homes of millions everyday. 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The ideals of the white oppressor, be it murder, rape, or sexual abuse were powerful forces that shaped the lives of many of the characters, especially the character Sethe. Rape and sexual abuse are two grotesque instances expressed throughout the novel. The most often referred to is the incident when SchoolteacherRead MoreBiography of Toni Morrison1620 Words   |  7 PagesToni Morrison Born on February 18, 1931, in Lorain, Ohio, Toni Morrison is a Nobel Prize- and Pulitzer Prize-winning American novelist, editor and professor. Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue and richly detailed black characters. Among her best known novels are The Bluest Eye, Song of Solomon and Beloved. Morrison has won nearly every book prize possible. She has also been awarded honorary degrees. Early Career Born Chloe Anthony Wofford on February 18, 1931, in LorainRead MoreThe Dead Of 9 / 11, And Toni Morrisons The Colossus Of New York900 Words   |  4 Pagesof â€Å"The Colossus of New York† by Colson Whitehead and â€Å"The Dead Of September 11† by Toni Morrison they both speak on the event of 9/11 , but Morrison’s poem is more heartfelt and sad because she uses a more direct approach to get the audiences attention. To compare both readings obviously they on the topic of 9/ll ,but they also explain the emotion and uses imagery of that horrible day . Toni Morrison states â€Å"Speaking to the broken and the dead is too difficult for a mouth full of bloodRead MoreThe Song Of Solomon By Toni Morrison1716 Words   |  7 PagesMilkman’s Attempt to Find what was Stripped from his Enslaved Ancestors in Song of Solomon Identity, what makes a person unique, was one of the many things that were stolen from the Africans as they were enslaved in America. Song of Solomon by Toni Morrison exemplifies the struggle that this situation created for the black community, lasting for centuries to follow. Milkman is the son of the Dead family and the main character of the book. He demonstrates the struggle to find his identity and his rootsRead MoreBeloved by Toni Morrison1455 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout history, numerous people were victims of slavery. Many people were tortured and worked to death and suffered horrifically. Not many slaves knew their mothers because they were torn from their homes. Many slave women were robbed of their innocence by their masters. Behind the face of every slave, there is always a very traumatic unforgettable story which is not something to pass on, but a lesson to remember from repeating same mistake again. Only a handful of slaves learned to read and